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Globalisation And Primary Education Development In Tanzania: Prospects And Challenges

Overview of the country and the primary school system: Tanzania covers 945,000 square kilometers, of which about 60,000 square kilometers are inland waters. The population is approximately 32 million people with a compound annual growth rate of 2.8% per year. Women make up 51% of the total population.

The majority of the population lives on the mainland, while the rest of the population lives in Zanzibar. Life expectancy is 50 years and the mortality rate is 8.8%. The economy depends on agriculture, tourism, manufacturing, mining and fishing.

Agriculture contributes about 50% of GDP and accounts for about two-thirds of Tanzania’s exports. Tourism contributes 15.8%; and manufacturing 8.1% and mining 1.7%.

The school system is a 2-7-4-2-3+ consisting of pre-school, elementary, ordinary secondary, upper secondary, technical and higher education. Primary education is compulsory, so parents should take their children to school to enroll them. The language of instruction in primary school is Kiswahili. One of the main goals of the first President J.

Nyerere was a development strategy for Tanzania as reflected in the 1967 Arusha Declaration, which ensures that basic social services are equally available to all members of society. In the education sector, this goal was implemented in 1974 in the Universal Primary Education Movement, which aimed to make primary education universally available, compulsory and free for users to ensure it reached the poorest. As the strategy was implemented, the campaign achieved a large-scale increase in the number of primary schools and teachers. with the help of donations. In the early 1980s every village in Tanzania had a primary school and gross enrollment was close to 100 percent, although the quality of the education provided was not very high.

Since 1996, the education sector has gone through the launch and operation of the Primary Education Development Plan – PEDP in 2001 to date. Globalization The definition of globalization may differ for different scholars. According to Cheng (2000), it can refer to the transfer, adaptation and development of values, knowledge, technology and norms of behavior between countries and societies in different parts of the world.

Typical phenomena and features related to globalization are the growth of global networks (e-Internet, worldwide electronic communication and transport), global transfer and confluence in technological, economic, social, political, cultural and learning areas, international alliances and competitions , international cooperation and exchange, global village, multicultural integration and use of international standards and benchmarks. See also Makule (2008) and MoEC
(2000). Globalization in education

In the pedagogical discipline, globalization can mean the same as the previous meanings such as concern, but more precisely all keywords aimed at educational issues. Dimmock & Walker (2005) argue that in a globalizing and internalizing world, it is not the companies and industries that are changing, but also education that is caught up in this new order. This situation presents every nation with a new empirical challenge of how to respond to this new order.